Gaskets are mechanical seals, usually formed like a ring and used for sealing of flange joints.
In general, gaskets should not be reused.
Various types of gaskets are available depending upon their construction, materials, and features.
Ring Joint Gaskets are used with Ring Type Joint (RTJ) flanges.They are available in octagonal or oval cross sections. A very high surface stress is developed between an RTJ gasket and the flange groove when RTJ is bolted up in a flange.
Water supply and sanitation has been a primary logistical challenge since the dawn of civilization.
Where water resources or infrastructure or sanitation systems are insufficient for the population, people fall prey to disease, dehydration, and in extreme cases, death. Major human settlements could initially develop only where fresh surface water was plentiful, such as near major rivers.Over the millennia, technology has dramatically increased the distances across which water can be relocated, but the availability of clean and fresh water remains a limiting factor on the size and density of population centers, and is expected to remain so into the foreseeable future.Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_water_supply_and_sanitation
Plumbing is any system that conveys fluids for a wide range of applications. Heating and cooling, waste removal, and potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing however plumbing's not limited to these applications.1 Plumbing utilizes pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other apparatuses to convey fluids.2 Trades that work with plumbing such as boilermakers, plumbers, and pipefitters are referred to the plumbing trade..
In the Developed world plumbing infrastructure is critical for public health and sanitation. Źródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plumbing#Systems